In recent years, the number of new antiepileptic agents has been growing, as have the potential applications. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients often present with behavioral disturbances that may be amenable to treatment with antiepileptic drugs. These conditions include bipolar disorder, as well as posttraumatic seizures and agitation. We review treatment of these three conditions with newer agents, as well as past literature on treatment with older antiepileptic drugs. We also review the pharmacology of newer antiepileptic drugs and summarize reports that indicate possible utility in the TBI population. Although there is a paucity of evidence for brain injury patients specifically, experience with similar groups suggests that these drugs may be useful. Further trials are indicated to clarify the role of the new antiepileptic agents, which may offer more tolerable side effect profiles than do current treatments.