Porcine IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α regulate the expression of pro-inflammatory-related genes and tissue factor in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

Academic Article


  • © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Whether porcine cytokines are induced after pig-to-primate xenotransplantation and activate human cells remains unknown. First, we investigated the regulation of porcine IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-1β, and TNF-α in xenotransplantation using an in vitro model in which porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAECs) and porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated with human serum. Downstream cytokines/chemokines were monitored. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IFN-γ, and IL-1β) and chemokines (IL-8, MCP-1, and CXCL2) were upregulated in the both cell types. TNF-α was induced 10-fold in PAECs, but not in PBMCs. Then, we assessed the role of porcine IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-1β, and TNF-α in xenotransplantation using western blotting and real-time PCR. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were selected as the target cells. Signaling pathways and downstream genes, such as those related to adhesion, inflammation, and coagulation, and chemokines were investigated. Porcine IL-1β and TNF-α significantly activated NF-κB and P38, and STAT3 was activated by porcine IL-6 in HUVECs. The adhesion genes (E-selectin, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1), inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α), chemokines (MCP-1 and IL-8), and the pro-coagulation gene (tissue factor) were upregulated by porcine IL-1β and TNF-α. Porcine IL-6 increased the expression of ICAM-1, IL-6, MCP-1, and tissue factor, but decreased IL-8 expression slightly. Surprisingly, porcine IFN-γ could not activate STAT1 or regulate the expression of any of the above genes in HUVECs. In conclusion, these findings suggest that porcine IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α activate HUVECs and regulate downstream genes expression, which may promote inflammation and coagulation response after xenotransplantation.
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    Author List

  • Gao H; Zhang Q; Chen J; Cooper DKC; Hara H; Chen P; Wei L; Zhao Y; Xu J; Li Z
  • Volume

  • 25
  • Issue

  • 5