Retention and changes of soy isoflavones and carotenoids in immature soybean seeds (edamame) during processing

Academic Article


  • Isoflavones and carotenoids in four experimental genotypes and Hutcheson cultivar soybeans were evaluated as a function of processing treatments and maturity. Total isoflavone and carotenoid contents were affected by genotypes and maturity stages (p < 0.0001). Total isoflavones ranged from 472 μg/g (in NTCPR93-40) to 2280 μg/g (in Hutcheson). Lutein contents ranged from 895 (in NTCPR93-286) to 2119 (in Honey Brown), and β-carotene ranged from 291 (in Hutcheson) to 491 (in NICPR92-40) μg/100 g. Mean total isoflavone retention percentages in immature Hutcheson soybeans were 46% (boiling), 53% (freezing), and 40% (freeze-drying). Mean retentions of lutein and β-carotene, respectively, were 92 and 73% in frozen, 62 and 62% in boiled, and 34 and 27% in freeze-dried soybeans. Boiling caused a substantial increase in daidzin, genistin, and genistein. The results show that post-harvest changes in total isoflavones and carotenoids in soybeans are influenced by processing methods, but genotype has an effect on isoflavone and carotenoid profiles during seed development.
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Simonne AH; Smith M; Weaver DB; Vail T; Barnes S; Wei CI
  • Start Page

  • 6061
  • End Page

  • 6069
  • Volume

  • 48
  • Issue

  • 12