This essay details select conceptual and theoretical challenges facing intercultural and cross-cultural communication research in the present and future. Notable challenges include defining culture and studying culture in a manner consistent with this definition. Issues related to the unit of analysis and conceptual equivalence are discussed. Regarding theory, some implications of individualism and collectivism are considered, and relational models theory is considered as a viable alternative. Finally, the issue of small effect sizes in studies of cross-cultural differences is addressed. Given current trends in globalization, meeting these challenges and moving forward is more important than ever. © 2007 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.