Objective: Mullerian low grade serous carcinoma (LGSC) and high grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) have distinct molecular profiles, clinical behavior and treatment response. Our objective was to study the biological profiles of these carcinomas. Methods: This study examines publicly available gene expression profiles of LGSC and HGSC to identify differentially expressed genes and key pathways involved in carcinogenesis and chemotherapy response. Results: Our analysis supports the hypothesis that serous mullerian carcinoma develop through two different pathways yielding two distinct malignancies, namely LGSC and HGSC. Furthermore, genes potentially involved in chemotherapeutic resistance of LGSC were identified. Suppressing the levels of these genes/proteins may increase clinical response to standard chemotherapy in patients with LGSC. Conclusion: In summary, this review shows the molecular profile of LGSC and HGSC through multi-center analysis of gene expression profiles of these tumors. The gene signatures of these neoplasms may potentially be used to develop disease-specific, targeted therapy for LGSC and HGSC. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.