Adiponectin is a protein secreted specifically by adipose cells that may couple regulation of insulin sensitivity with energy metabolism and serve to link obesity with insulin resistance. Obesity-related disorders including the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and coronary artery disease are associated with decreased plasma levels of adiponectin, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction. Adiponectin has insulin-sensitizing effects as well as antiatherogenic properties. Lifestyle modifications and some drug therapies to treat atherosclerosis, hypertension, and coronary heart disease have important effects to simultaneously increase adiponectin levels, decrease insulin resistance, and improve endothelial dysfunction. In this review, we discuss insights into the relationships between adiponectin levels, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction that are derived from various therapeutic interventions. The effects of lifestyle modifications and cardiovascular drugs on adiponectin levels and insulin resistance suggest plausible mechanisms that may be important for treating atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. © 2007 American College of Cardiology Foundation.