Copyright © 2018 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. During the past several decades, numerous trials have compared various diets for the management of overweight and obesity, assuming that a single dietary strategy would be appropriate for all individuals. These studies have failed to provide strong evidence for the efficacy of any particular diet, and it is likely that different people will have different levels of success on different diets. We identified studies investigating pretreatment glycemia or insulinemia status, or both, of the individual as prognostic markers of weight loss during periods in which the composition of a participant's diet was known. Overall, research suggests that providing specific diets for weight management based on pretreatment glycemia and insulinemia statuses holds great promise for advancing personalized nutrition.