© FEMS 2018. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis, encounters variable and hostile environments within the host. A major component of these hostile conditions is reductive and oxidative stresses induced by factors modified by the host immune response, such as oxygen tension, NO or CO gases, reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates, the availability of different carbon sources and changes in pH. It is therefore essential for Mtb to continuously monitor and appropriately respond to the microenvironment. To this end, Mtb has developed various redox-sensitive systems capable of monitoring its intracellular redox environment and coordinating a response essential for virulence. Various aspects of Mtb physiology are regulated by these systems, including drug susceptibility, secretion systems, energy metabolism and dormancy. While great progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms and pathways that govern the response of Mtb to the host's redox environment, many questions in this area remain unanswered. The answers to these questions are promising avenues for addressing the tuberculosis crisis.