Pneumococcal neuraminidase, NanA, is a pneumococcal vaccine candidate. Prior culture-confirmed pneumococcal contacts were shown to induce serum anti-NanA antibodies during the first 2 years of life. The antibody concentrations at neither 12 nor 18 months were significantly associated with the risk of subsequent pneumococcal carriage or acute otitis media. Copyright © 2006, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.