In patients with recurrent pyelonephritis, the pathogenetic events proceed through intestinal colonization, spread to the urinary tract and persistence, seemingly uninterrupted by host defense mechanisms. The factors responsible for the deficient bacterial clearance from the kidneys of these patients, and the genetic control, have not been identified. The susceptibility to colonization has been linked to an increased receptivity for attaching bacteria of the uroepithelia, and to an overrepresentation of the P 1 blood group phenotype. To evaluate the role of defects in host defense for the susceptibility to pyelonephritis, experimental UTI in mouse strains with known deficiencies was used. A highly significant increase in susceptibility was noted for C3H/HeJ compared to C3H/HeN mice. The bacterial recovery was inversely correlated to the mitogenic response to LPS. Back-cross analysis revealed a linkage of susceptibility to the Lps d /Lps d genotype. In contrast, T and B lymphocyte and complement (C5) defects had little effect on the clearance of Escherichia coli from the kidneys. It is concluded that the inflammatory mechanisms induced by LPS are essential for resistance to experimental pyelonephritis. © 1985 MMV Medizin Verlag GmbH München.