Background: Elevated troponin levels are an independent indicator of poor outcome in ischemic stroke. The authors performed a retrospective study to ascertain whether elevated cardiac troponin I (cTnI) influences outcome from intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods: Patients were included if they had a cTnI level measured and a head CT performed within 24 hours of presentation with a spontaneous ICH. Those with recent stroke, angina, or myocardial ischemia were excluded. CT scans were reviewed to determine the hematoma size, location, presence of intraventricular or subarachnoid hemorrhage, hydrocephalus, and midline shift. Results: Of the 729 ICH patients admitted over 4 years, 235 were included in the analysis. Most exclusions were for medical reasons or because of lack of a CT. Mortality was higher in the 18% with a peak cTnI level > 0.4 ng/mL (58 vs 34%, p = 0.009) and having elevated cTnI was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (Exp [β] 3.68, 95% CI 1.2 to 11.2, p = 0.023). Three patients (1.2%) died due to cardiac events, all of whom had an elevated cTnI level on admission. Conclusions: Elevated cardiac troponin I (cTnI) values occur frequently in ICH and are independently associated with higher in-hospital mortality. Although cardiac causes of death were higher in those with elevated cTnI levels, due to its very low frequency (1.2%) this finding remains preliminary. Copyright © 2006 by AAN Enterprises, Inc.