We report a case of a 65-year-old black man with combined Hodgkin lymphoma and T-cell Iymphoma. The patient presented with diffuse lymphadenopathy, fever, weight loss, and night sweats. Subsequent biopsy of an axillary lymph node revealed a composite lymphoma composed of classic Hodgkin lymphoma and a peripheral T-cell lymphoma. A needle biopsy of the liver also showed involvement by the composite lymphoma. In situ hybridization studies revealed positive Epstein-Barr virus in Reed-Sternberg cells. Development of T-cell lymphoma following chemotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma has been reported, but synchronous composite occurrence of both lesions is very rare. Furthermore, this is the first report of such occurrence in a black patient. We present a review of the literature and a discussion of the potential pathophysiologic role of Epstein-Barr virus in the early stages of T-cell lymphomagenesis.