Auxiliary liver transplantation has been performed in the baboon using allografts (n=8) and concordant xenografts from donor African green monkeys (n=8). The native portal vein was ligated in all cases and the native common bile duct was ligated in 5 cases. The immunosuppressive therapy used was identical in both the allografts and xenografts and consisted of triple drug therapy (cyclosporine, cyclophosphamide, and methylprednisolone), all at dosages consistent with clinical use. During the determination of the surgical technique to be applied, there were 5 early failures (3 allografts, 2 xenografts), and 2 deaths at 10 and 20 days from multiorgan failure and sepsis, respectively (xenografts). The remaining 9 baboons (5 allografts, 4 xenografts) were electively euthanized at 16-62 days (allografts) and 35-120 days (xenografts). Hyperacute rejection or antibody-mediated rejection was not seen in the grafted livers. Episodes of acute cellular rejection occurred in the majority of animals within the first 30 days and recurred in the longer-term survivors, but could be controlled by bolus therapy with intravenous methylprednisolone. Satisfactory donor liver function was confirmed using a number of tests, including scintigraphy in 3 cases. We conclude that auxiliary liver transplantation using a closely related donor species is feasible in baboons and might be extended to humans with terminal liver failure. A baboon-to-man auxiliary liver graft may serve as a “bridge” until either a human cadaver donor liver became available or native liver function recovers in patients with fulminant hepatic failure. © 1995 by Williams and Wilkins.