Although Ringer lactate (RL) is routinely used for resuscitation, it is not known whether the volume of RL that restores cardiac output after severe hemorrhagic shock also restores the depressed effective hepatic blood flow (EHBF). To study this, a 5-cm midline laparotomy was performed in rats (i.e., trauma induced), and the animals were then bled to and maintained at a mean arterial pressure of 40 mmHg until 40% of maximum bleedout volume was returned in the form of RL. Animals were then resuscitated with four or five times the volume of maximum bleedout with RL. EHBF was determined during hemorrhage and at various intervals thereafter by an in vivo indocyanine green (ICG) clearance technique and corrected by the appropriate hepatic extraction ratio for ICG. Cardiac output was determined by ICG dilution, and hepatic microvascular blood flow (HMBF) was measured with laser Doppler flowmetry. In addition, hepatic blood flow was assessed by using radioactive microspheres. Results indicate that resuscitation markedly improved but did not restore the depressed EHBF after trauma and hemorrhagic shock despite the fact that cardiac output was restored. Similar changes in EHBF, HMBF, and hepatic blood flow as determined by microspheres were observed, suggesting that the in vivo ICG clearance is a reliable method to assess effective hepatic perfusion. Thus the lack of restoration of EHBF may be responsible for the subsequent hepatocellular dysfunction after trauma and severe hemorrhage.