© 2015 Elsevier Inc. Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with increased rates of gastrointestinal neoplasia. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's colitis increase the risk of colorectal cancer, and patients with these conditions should be monitored via an intensive surveillance program. This intensive surveillance program should include colonoscopies every 1 to 2 years with multiple biopsies of the colon taken. The presence of dysplasia should warrant referral for consideration of prophylactic proctocolectomy. Crohn's disease is also associated with an increased risk of small bowel and anal cancers.