We investigated the ability of membrane-bound human complement regulatory proteins to control com-plement-driven humoral immune reactions on murine microvasculature. The human complement regulatory proteins CD59 and DAF were expressed using heterologous promoters in a variety of tissues in transgenic mice. Animals expressing these gene products are healthy and exhibit significant levels of endothelial cell expression of CD59 and DAF in cardiac muscle. Transgenic hearts perfused with human plasma exhibited profound reductions in the level of complement deposition compared with nontransgenic controls. We have also produced transgenic pigs that express these two human genes. Our results indicate that expression of complement regulatory proteins can control activation of complement and suggest that these proteins may have therapeutic applications in some inflammatory diseases and in the development of xenogeneic organs for human transplantation. © 1995 by Williams & Wilkins.