Copyright © 2016 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved. Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a significant clinical issue which affects patients' quality of life as well as treatment decisions. Significant improvements in the control of CINV have occurred in the past 15 years with the introduction of new antiemetic agents: 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, tachykinin NK1receptor antagonists and olanzapine. Aprepitant was the first NK1receptor antagonist introduced (2003) for the prevention of CINV in combination with a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and dexamethasone. Two additional NK1receptor antagonists, netupitant and rolapitant, were approved by the FDA in 2014 and 2015, respectively. A description of rolapitant and its role in CINV will be presented, along with a comparison to the other NK1receptor antagonists, aprepitant and netupitant.