© 2018 Shi et al. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Innate immune recognition is classically mediated by the interaction of host pattern-recognition receptors and pathogen-associated molecular patterns; this triggers a series of downstream signaling events that facilitate killing and elimination of invading pathogens. In this report, we provide the first evidence that peroxidasin (PXDN; also known as vascular peroxidase-1) directly binds to gram-negative bacteria and mediates bactericidal activity, thus, contributing to lung host defense. PXDN contains five leucine-rich repeats and four immunoglobulin domains, which allows for its interaction with lipopolysaccharide, a membrane component of gram-negative bacteria. Bactericidal activity of PXDN is mediated via its capacity to generate hypohalous acids. Deficiency of PXDN results in a failure to eradicate Pseudomonas aeruginosa and increased mortality in a murine model of Pseudomonas lung infection. These observations indicate that PXDN mediates previously unrecognized host defense functions against gram-negative bacterial pathogens.