© 2018, Microbiology Society. All rights reserved. Members of the family Avsunviroidae have a single-stranded circular RNA genome that adopts a rod-like or branched conformation and can form, in the strands of either polarity, hammerhead ribozymes involved in their replication in plastids through a symmetrical RNA–RNA rolling-circle mechanism. These viroids lack the central conserved region typical of members of the family Pospiviroidae. The family Avsunviroidae includes three genera, Avsunviroid, Pelamoviroid and Elaviroid, with a total of four species. This is a summary of the ICTV Report on the taxonomy of the family Avsunviroidae, which is available at http://www.ictv.global/report/avsunviroidae.