Objective: To determine patient-oriented outcome after anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) for refractory epilepsy. Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important component of the assessment of outcome from epilepsy surgery, but prior controlled studies of the effect of surgery on HRQOL are inconclusive. Direct assessment of the effect of surgery on patient concerns of living with epilepsy has not been reported. Methods: We used reliable and valid instruments to compare HRQOL and patient concerns of 125 patients who had received an ATL more than than one year previously to a clinically similar group of 71 patients who were awaiting ATL. All patients were selected for surgery based on similar criteria. We also used bivariate correlation analysis and multivariate regression modeling to determine the association of traditional outcome variables with HRQOL. Results: Patients who had undergone ATL reported significantly less concern of living with epilepsy in 16 of 20 items of the EFA Concerns Index and better HRQOL in 8 of 11 scales of the Epilepsy Surgery Inventory-55. Regression analysis in the postoperative group demonstrated that mood status, employment, driving, and antiepileptic drug (AED) cessation, but not seizure-free status or IQ, were associated with better HRQOL. Conclusions: Our findings support a positive affect of ATL on patient concerns and HRQOL in refractory temporal lobe epilepsy, although longitudinal studies are needed to corroborate these results. Mood, employment, driving ability, and AED use are important postoperative predictors of HRQOL.