PURPOSE: To determine the ability of optic nerve head (ONH) parameters measured with spectral domain Cirrus HD-OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc., Dublin, CA) to discriminate between normal and glaucomatous eyes and to compare them with the discriminating ability of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements performed with Cirrus HD-OCT. DESIGN: Evaluation of diagnostic test or technology. PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-three subjects with glaucoma and 146 age-matched normal subjects. METHODS: Peripapillary ONH parameters and RNFL thickness were measured in 1 randomly selected eye of each participant within a 200 × 200 pixel A-scan acquired with Cirrus HD-OCT centered on the ONH. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Optic nerve head topographic parameters, peripapillary RNFL thickness, and area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs). RESULTS: To distinguish normal from glaucomatous eyes, regardless of disease stage, the 6 best parameters (expressed as AUC) were vertical rim thickness (VRT, 0.963), rim area (0.962), RNFL thickness at clock-hour 7 (0.957), RNFL thickness of the inferior quadrant (0.953), vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR, 0.951), and average RNFL thickness (0.950). The AUC for distinguishing between normal eyes and eyes with mild glaucoma was greatest for RNFL thickness of clock-hour 7 (0.918), VRT (0.914), rim area (0.912), RNFL thickness of inferior quadrant (0.895), average RNFL thickness (0.893), and VCDR (0.890). There were no statistically significant differences between AUCs for the best ONH parameters and RNFL thickness measurements (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Cirrus HD-OCT ONH parameters are able to discriminate between normal eyes and eyes with glaucoma or even mild glaucoma. There is no difference in the ability of ONH parameters and RNFL thickness measurement, as measured with Cirrus OCT, to distinguish between normal and glaucomatous eyes.