The American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) Apheresis Applications Committee is charged with a review and categorization of indications for therapeutic apheresis. This elaborate process had been undertaken every 7 years resulting in three prior publications in 1986, 1993, and 2000 of "The ASFA Special Issues." This article is the integral part of the Fourth ASFA Special Issue. The Fourth ASFA Special Issue is significantly modified in comparison to the previous editions. A new concept of a fact sheet has been introduced. The fact sheet succinctly summarizes the evidence for the use of therapeutic apheresis. A detailed description of the fact sheet is provided. The article consists of 53 fact sheets devoted to each disease entity currently categorized by the ASFA. Categories I, II, and III are defined as previously in the Third Special Issue. However, a few new therapeutic apheresis modalities, not yet approved in the United States or are currently in clinical trials, have been assigned category P (pending) by the ASFA Clinical Categories Subcommittee. The diseases assigned to category IV are discussed in a separate article in this issue. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.