Cyclic adenosine monophosphate response-element binding protein (CREB) is a nuclear protein that regulates expression of genes that control cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. To analyze CREB expression in leukemia cells, we conducted Western blot analysis of bone marrow cells obtained from patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, patients with acute myeloid leukemia, and patients without active leukemia. CREB was expressed at a higher frequency in bone marrow cells from patients with acute lymphoid or myeloid leukemia than in patients with leukemia remission or without leukemia. Our results indicate that CREB expression could be a useful marker for leukemia in patients with acute disease and suggest a role for CREB in leukemogenesis. © 2002 by The American Society of Hematology.