HCT survivors are at risk of developing a variety of long-term complications, such as endocrinopathies, musculoskeletal disorders, cardiopulmonary compromise, and subsequent malignant neoplasms (SMNs). These complications directly impact the burden of morbidity borne by HCT survivors, and have provided the rationale for standardized follow-up of HCT survivors at high risk for these complications. This chapter summarizes the magnitude of risk of key delayed non-malignant complications experienced by HCT survivors, identiiying patients at increased risk because of host characteristics and therapeutic exposures. Additionally, it describes the overall burden of morbidity (physical and psychosocial) and the late mortality experienced by HCT survivors. Osteonecrosis has been reported as a complication of HCT, and can cause significant morbidity and often requires surgery. The high burden of morbidity suffered by HCT survivors necessitates that strategies be developed for prevention or early detection of these complications.