Gender and age differences in symptom distress and functional disability one year after heart transplant surgery

Academic Article


  • Objective: Symptoms and functional status are major concerns for heart transplant (HT) recipients. The study objective was to examine gender and age differences in symptom distress and functional disability 1 year after HT surgery. Methods: The sample (N = 237) consisted of 44 female and 193 male patients who were divided into younger (n = 66) and older (n = 171) groups with the breakpoint at age 50 years. Data from chart review and 2 questionnaires (Heart Transplant Symptom Checklist and Sickness Impact Profile) were analyzed with chi-square test, t tests, analysis of variance, and multivariate analysis of variance. Results: Women reported worse symptom distress (overall, plus cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, dermatologic symptoms) and more functional disability (overall, plus disability in ambulation, mobility, self-care, home management). Older patients reported more disability in ambulation and work. Gender by age interactions showed that older men reported worse genitourinary symptoms and younger women reported worse dermatologic symptoms. Conclusion: There were more gender than age differences in symptoms and disability. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Jalowiec A; Grady KL; White-Williams C
  • Start Page

  • 21
  • End Page

  • 30
  • Volume

  • 40
  • Issue

  • 1