From the earliest days of transplantation, research has contributed to our knowledge of the psychosocial sequelae associated with the outcomes of the procedure. The purpose of this review is to describe the social adaptation literature for heart, lung, and heart-lung recipients. Social adaptation refers to employment and performance of social roles and responsibilities. Employment research focused on vocational rehabilitation, physical health restoration, and return to work. Social roles and responsibilities research focused on social roles, family relationships, social support, and psychosocial adjustment. Predictors, interventions, and their associations with outcomes are discussed.