Binding of a new thyroid-stimulating human monoclonal autoantibody (MAb) K1-18 to the TSH receptor (TSHR) leucinerich domain (LRD) was predicted using charge-charge interaction mapping based on unique complementarities between the TSHR in interactions with the thyroid-stimulating human MAb M22 or the thyroid-blocking human MAb K1-70. The interactions of K1-18 with the TSHR LRD were compared with the interactions in the crystal structures of the M22-TSHR LRD and K1-70-TSHR LRD complexes. Furthermore, the predicted position of K1-18 on the TSHR was validated by the effects of TSHR mutations on the stimulating activity of K1-18. A similar approach was adopted for predicting binding of a mouse thyroid-blocking MAb RSR-B2 to the TSHR. K1-18 is predicted to bind to the TSHR LRD in a similar way as TSH and M22. The binding analysis suggests that K1-18 light chain (LC) mimics binding of the TSH-α chain and the heavy chain (HC) mimics binding of the TSH-β chain. By contrast, M22 HC mimics the interactions of TSH-α while M22 LC mimics TSH-β in interactions with the TSHR. The observed interactions in the M22-TSHR LRD and K1-70-TSHR LRD complexes (crystal structures) with TSH-TSHR LRD (comparative model) and K1-18-TSHR LRD (predictive binding) suggest that K1-18 and M22 interactions with the receptor may reflect interaction of thyroid-stimulating autoantibodies in general. Furthermore, K1-70 and RSR-B2 interactions with the TSHR LRD may reflect binding of TSHR-blocking autoantibodies in general. Interactions involving the C-terminal part of the TSHR LRD may be important for receptor activation by autoantibodies. © 2012 Society for Endocrinology.