The principal pathological manifestation of murine Schitosoma mansoni infection is the egg-induced granuloma. Synchronous pulmonary granulomas forming around intravenously injected schistosome eggs are widely used to study the immunopathology of schistosomiasis. A number of anticytokine antibody treatments have a remarkable effect in modulating granulomas in this model but little effect on the size of hepatic granulomas around laid eggs during experimental infection. To examine this discrepancy, we examined the effects of anticytokine antibodies on liver and lung granulomas around injected eggs and around eggs laid during infection in both locations. Anti- interleukin-4 (IL-4) treatment greatly reduced the volume of granulomas around eggs injected into the liver via the portal vein and around eggs injected into the lung via the tail vein. On the contrary, granulomas around eggs laid by worms in either the liver or the lung during the course of infection were not significantly decreased in size by anti-IL-4 treatment. Thus, site is not important for the disparate effects of anti-IL-4 in granuloma formation around injected versus laid eggs. This effect is seen in naive and sensitized animals and is must probably due to differences in the quality of injected eggs versus those laid in situ by the worms.