Recurrence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy despite immune recovery in two HIV seropositive individuals.

Academic Article


  • We present two cases of recurrent progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in patients with long standing virally suppressed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and normal CD4+ T cell count who were taking stable regimens of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This has significant implications for other patients with a past history of PML, not just those with HIV but also those on medications such as natalizumab or fumarates.
  • Published In


  • Neuroimmunology, Neurovirology, Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, Anti-HIV Agents, Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active, CD4 Lymphocyte Count, CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes, Coinfection, Female, HIV Infections, HIV-1, Humans, JC Virus, Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal, Male, Middle Aged, Natalizumab, Recurrence
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Crossley KM; Agnihotri S; Chaganti J; Rodriguez ML; McNally LP; Venna N; Turbett SE; Gutman M; Morey A; Koralnik IJ
  • Start Page

  • 541
  • End Page

  • 545
  • Volume

  • 22
  • Issue

  • 4