Background.: Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been suggested to be deeply associated with immune tolerance and long-term graft survival in transplantation. Some recipients with stable graft function (ST) could possibly minimize immunosuppression during the maintenance period. However, effective assays for assessing the suitability of patients have yet to be established. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the clinical relevance of Treg-related gene expression such as forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) in peripheral blood after renal transplantation. Methods.: Several key molecules related to the function of immune cells such as Treg, including Foxp3, transforming growth factor-β, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, chemokine receptor 7, toll-like receptor 4, granzyme B, T-bet, GATA3, RORC, α1,2-mannosidase, and proteasome subunit β 10 were examined in the peripheral blood of 272 renal transplant recipients by quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The expression levels were compared between recipients with chronic rejection and ST. Results.: Foxp3 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were reduced immediately after transplantation and gradually recovered. Pretransplantation levels were closely correlated with 1 year posttransplantation levels. Recipients with chronic rejection had significantly lower levels of Foxp3, chemokine receptor 7, and granzyme B mRNA, and higher levels of toll-like receptor 4 and proteasome subunit β 10 mRNA compared with those with ST, although Foxp3 was the most relevant marker. Conclusion.: There is a possibility that monitoring mRNA expression levels of Treg-related molecules in peripheral blood might offer useful information on patient selection and early detection of rejection when immunosuppression minimization strategy is implemented in renal transplantation. Copyright © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.