Cocaine and amphetamine can induce both short-term and long-term behavioral changes in rodents. The major target for these psychostimulants is thought to be the brain dopamine system. To determine whether the dopamine D1 receptor plays a crucial role in the behavioral effects of psychostimulants, we tested both the locomotor and stereotyped behaviors in D1 receptor mutant and wild-type control mice after cocaine and amphetamine treatments. We found that the overall locomotor responses of D1 receptor mutant mice to repeated cocaine administration were significantly reduced compared to those of the wild-type mice and the responses of the D1 receptor mutant mice to cocaine injections were never significantly higher than their responses to saline injections. D1 receptor mutant mice were less sensitive than the wild-type mice to acute amphetamine stimulation over a dose range even though they exhibited apparently similar behavioral responses as those of the wild-type mice after repeated amphetamine administration at the 5 mg/kg dose. Immunostaining experiments indicated that there was no detectable neurotoxicity in the nucleus accumbens in both D1 receptor mutant and wild- type mice after repeated amphetamine administration. The data suggest that the D1 receptor plays an essential role in mediating cocaine-induced behavioral changes in mice. Moreover, the D1 receptor also participates in behavioral responses induced by amphetamine administration.