Mice carrying mutated human APPswe and PS1 (A246E) transgenes (A/P mice) show age-dependent memory impairment in hippocampus-dependent tasks. Moreover, the mice show normal learning in the water maze within a day but impairment across days. We recorded LTP in a slice preparation (CA1) and in chronically implanted animals (dentate gyrus, or DG) at 17-18 months of age. The genotypes did not differ in the basal synaptic transmission. Also, LTP induction and its maintenance over 60 min did not differ between A/P and control mice. However, the fEPSP enhancement in vivo decayed to 77% of its maximum in 24 h in A/P mice while remaining at 96% in control mice. The time course of the LTP decay in the A/P mice corresponds to their behavioral impairment and indicates that Aβ accumulation in the dentate gyrus may interfere with the signal transduction pathways responsible for memory consolidation. © 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.