WE investigated the effects of estrogen replacement therapy on water maze non-spatial and spatial navigation in mice. Three groups of mice were ovariectomized and two of these groups being implanted with s.c. pellets that produce blood levels of estrogen close to those found in estrous (estrogen low, 75-100 pg/ml blood) or proestrous (estrogen high, 300-400pg/ml). The behavioral assessment was initiated 7 days after pellet implantation. Non- spatial navigation to a clearly visible platform was stimulated by low and high levels of estrogen. However, spatial navigation to a hidden platform was improved by low estrogen levels. We found that estrogen improves two different types of memory processes that depend on striatal (non-spatial navigation) and hippocampal (spatial)memory systems.