© 2018 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with optimal adherence has demonstrated efficacy in reducing HIV incidence in women. Black women are disproportionately burdened by the HIV epidemic, accounting for more than half of all new HIV cases in women, thereby making PrEP an ideal prevention strategy for this group. However, to date, PrEP uptake by women in the United States has been slow. Further domestic research is needed to understand the multilevel factors related to PrEP awareness, uptake, and implementation in Black women. Our purpose was to review the current status of HIV prevention in Black women. We summarize clinical trials germane to federal approval of PrEP; discuss important PrEP studies focused on women, including non-oral options; and review multilevel barriers to PrEP uptake. Lastly, we discuss the use of an integrated theoretical framework to organize multilevel factors related to PrEP uptake by Black women in order to guide intervention development.