Objective: Medical institutions use quality metrics to track complications seen in hospital admissions. Similarly, morbidity and mortality (M&M) conferences are held to peer review complications. The purpose of this study was to compare the complications identified in a cohort of patients within 30 days of neurosurgical intervention with those captured in a cohort of M&M conferences. Methods: All complications that occurred within 30 days of surgery were obtained for patients admitted to the neurosurgical service between May and September 2013. All patients discussed in M&M conference between August 2012 and February 2015 were included in a second data set. Complications were subdivided into 4 categories and compared between the 2 cohorts. Results: A total of 749 postoperative complications were identified, including 52 urinary tract infections, 52 pneumonias, 15 deep vein thromboses, 19 strokes, 75 seizures, 25 wound infections, 6 cardiac arrests, and 162 reoperations. Eighty-five M&M cases were reviewed, identifying 9 strokes, 3 seizures, 8 wound infections, 13 hematomas, 7 intraoperative errors, and 11 postoperative deaths. The M&M cohort showed higher rates of neurologic complications (P < 0.0001) and surgical complications (P < 0.0001). The neurosurgical admission cohort showed higher rates of general medical adverse events (P = 0.0118) and infectious complications (not surgical wound related, P = 0.0002). Conclusions: Both neurosurgical service inpatient complications and complications discussed in M&M provide valuable opportunities for identifying areas in need of quality improvement. As the United States moves toward an outcomes reimbursement model, neurosurgical programs should adjust M&M conferences to reflect both technical operative complications as well as more common complications.