© 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel. All rights reserved. Background: Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) is a hormone that regulates phosphorus levels and Vitamin D metabolism. Previous studies have shown FGF-23 to be a risk factor for incident end-stage renal disease; however, there are less data on the association of FGF-23 with earlier kidney-related outcomes. Methods: Serum FGF-23 was assayed using an intact ELISA assay in 2,496 participants of the Healthy Aging and Body Composition Study, a cohort of well-functioning older adults. Kidney function was estimated by assaying cystatin C at baseline and years 3 and 10. The associations between FGF-23 and decline in kidney function (defined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline ≥30% or ≥3 mL/min/year) and incident chronic kidney disease (CKD; incident eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and ≥1 mL/min/year decline) were evaluated. Models were adjusted for demographics, baseline eGFR, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, comorbidity, and serum calcium, phosphorus, 25(OH) Vitamin D and parathyroid hormone. Results: The mean (SD) age was 75 (3) years, with 52% female and 38% black. There were 405 persons with 30% decline, 702 with >3 mL/min/year decline, and 536 with incident CKD. In fully adjusted continuous models, doubling of FGF-23 concentrations was not associated with kidney function decline (OR [95% CI] = 0.98 [0.82-1.19] for ≥30% decline and OR 1.17 [95% CI 1.00-1.37] for ≥3 mL/min/year decline), or incident CKD (incident rate ratio [IRR] 1.05 [95% CI 0.91-1.22]). In adjusted quartile analysis, the highest quartile of FGF-23 was significantly associated with incident CKD (IRR 1.27 [95% CI 1.02-1.58] for highest vs. lowest quartile). Conclusion: Higher FGF-23 concentrations were not consistently associated with decline in kidney function or incident CKD in community-dwelling older adults.