© 2018 The Authors. The family Ampullaviridae includes viruses with linear dsDNA genomes that replicate in hyperthermophilic archaea from the genus Acidianus. The virions have a unique champagne bottle-shaped morphology and consist of a nucleoprotein filament condensed into a cone-shaped core, which is encased by an envelope, with the base of the ‘bottle’ decorated with a ring of 20 filaments. Genome replication is presumably carried out by the virus-encoded protein-primed family B DNA polymerase. The bottle-shaped morphology is unprecedented among viruses of bacteria and eukaryotes and represents a group of archaea-specific virion morphotypes. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Ampullaviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/ ampullaviridae.