Antigen I/II mediates interactions between Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans

Academic Article


  • Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans are frequently co-isolated from dental plaque of children with early childhood caries (ECC) and are only rarely found in children without ECC, suggesting that these species interact in a manner that contributes to the pathogenesis of ECC. Previous studies have demonstrated that glucans produced by S. mutans are crucial for promoting the formation of biofilm and cariogenicity with C. albicans; however, it is unclear how non-glucan S. mutans biofilm factors contribute to increased biofilm formation in the presence of C. albicans. In this study we examined the role of S. mutans antigen I/II in two-species biofilms with C. albicans, and determined that antigen I/II is important for the incorporation of C. albicans into the two-species biofilm and is also required for increased acid production. The interaction is independent of the proteins Als1 and Als3, which are known streptococcal receptors of C. albicans. Moreover, antigen I/II is required for the colonization of both S. mutans and C. albicans during co-infection of Drosophila melanogaster in vivo. Taken together, these results demonstrate that antigen I/II mediates the increase of C. albicans numbers and acid production in the two-species biofilm, representing new activities associated with this known S. mutans adhesin.
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    Author List

  • Yang C; Scoffield J; Wu R; Deivanayagam C; Zou J; Wu H
  • Start Page

  • 283
  • End Page

  • 291
  • Volume

  • 33
  • Issue

  • 4