Background: Experiments were designed to define cardiac function in dogs with single lung allografts during acute rejection of the allografted lung. Methods and Results: Left lungs were either autotransplanted (n=4) or allotransplanted (n=8) in adult male mongrel dogs. All allotransplanted animals were maintained on triple-drug immunosuppression (cyclosporine, azathioprine, and steroids) for 5 days after the operation. In 4 allotransplanted animals, treatment was discontinued, allowing the animals to reject (usually after a further 3 days; rejecting group); 4 other allotransplanted animals were maintained on immunosuppression for an additional 3 days (immunosuppressed group). Another group of dogs were not operated on but were maintained on the same immunosuppression as the rejecting group (controls). All experimental animals underwent fast computed tomographic scanning with measurement of left ventricular pressure and calculation of ventricular chamber volumes, cross-sectional areas of coronary arteries, myocardial perfusion, and intramyocardial blood volume. Neither cardiac output, left ventricular mass, left ventricular pressure, nor myocardial oxygen consumption was altered during acute rejection of lung allografts. However, left ventricular contractility (systolic elastance, E(max)) and ejection fraction were depressed to approximately one half (P<.05) in acutely rejecting animals compared with other groups. The cross- sectional area of the coronary arteries was less in autotransplanted and allotransplanted treated animals than in animals that were not operated on. Cross-sectional area of the coronary arteries was decreased by an additional 30% in the rejecting group (P<.05). Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that acute rejection of a single lung allograft decreases cardiac performance and reduces diameter of coronary arteries in the recipient. Alterations of circulating humoral factors and activated leukocytes may contribute to these changes.