Infectious complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in transplant recipients. We describe a case of fatal disseminated aspergillosis immediately following autologous peripheral stem cell reconstitution in a patient who had undergone orthotopic heart transplantation for systemic amyloidosis. The case described suggests that the infectious risks in patients undergoing these sequential procedures may be distinct from those occurring in patients undergoing either procedure independently. Potential prophylactic and therapeutic interventions are discussed. Since this experimental and evolving approach for the management of systemic amyloidosis is potentially applicable to a limited number of patients, multicenter collaboration may be needed to further define the infectious risks in this unique subset of transplant recipients.