We postulated that postoperative B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels would be reflective of the degree of hemodynamic support rendered by various pump speeds settings (RPM) of continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (LVADs). Twenty LVAD patients were evaluated prospectively (Jarvik 2000: n = 9, HeartMate II: n = 11). The mean age was 57.7 ± 14.9 years, and 14 were male. B-type natriuretic peptide levels were drawn while the patients were supported on LVADs at variable RPM settings. The RPM settings were correlated with the changes in BNP levels. Eleven patients underwent LVAD implantation for a lifelong support while the rest were as a bridge therapy to transplantation. Four patients required LVAD change out for various causes of pump failure. Postoperative BNP levels decreased dramatically with the initiation of LVAD support. The levels correlated inversely with the degree of hemodynamic support rendered at various RPM settings of the HeartMate II (p < 0.001). Overall, BNP levels decreased significantly in 2 days after RPM increase. We observed a significant inverse correlation between the postoperative BNP levels and the degree of LVAD support. The effective LVAD support seems to result in a marked reduction in BNP levels, and monitoring serial BNP levels may be helpful in managing patients supported on continuous LVAD. © 2010 American Society of Artificial Internal Organs.