Background Anosognosia for hemiplegia (AHP) after stroke is a complex cognitive behavioral disorder that removes awareness of one-sided paralysis (hemiplegia). As a result, stroke survivors afflicted with AHP may be more likely to have unrealistic expectations for stroke rehabilitation, display unsafe behaviors and experience falls, and ultimately suffer the physical and psychological consequences of frequent falling. Objective The purpose of this article is to describe AHP by discussing anosognosia within the context of contemporary theoretical understandings, examining current imaging evidence of the disorder, and summarizing emerging interventions designed to reinstate self-awareness in anosognosic patients. Method Systematic review with a focus on defining and describing AHP based on human experimental studies was conducted within a 10-year period. Results Eleven studies were identified. The content and foci of the 11 studies fell into one of three categories: theory testing, imaging evidence, and interventions for individuals with AHP.