Musculoskeletal injuries in the occupational setting have significant impact on the worker, employer, and healthcare system. The commercial truck driver (CTD) experiences some of the highest rates of injury, missed days of work, and workers' compensation costs compared with other workers. In this population, the back is most commonly affected whereas shoulder injuries are the second but require 5 times more days away from work. Commercial truck drivers are significantly impacted by shoulder injuries; however, little is known about the unique mechanisms of injury, specific injuries, or possible preventative measures among this group of workers. This article reviews the current state of the science related to musculoskeletal disorders of the shoulder within the CTD population, to provide a better understanding of the true extent of these disorders and their impact, and to create a foundation for future research.