Protection from Chlamydia trachomatis infection is serovar-specific and T cell-dependent; however, the T cell epitopes identified to date have not been serovar-specific. The chlamydial major outer membrane protein (MOMP) contains serovar-specific B cell epitopes in four regions of the molecule whose amino acid sequence varies among serovars, the variable segments (VS). Serovar-specific T cell epitopes were sought by examining proliferation of blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from Chlamydia-infected patients in response to VS peptides of serovar E MOMP. Serovar E-specific peptides from VS1, VS2, and VS4 stimulated PBMC to a greater extent in serovar E-infected than in non-E-infected subjects. Peptides containing constant regions of MOMP were recognized equally by all infected persons. The observed responses were attributable to T cells. T cell recognition of serovar-specific regions of MOMP is common and may contribute to the serovar-specific protection previously observed.