Enfuvirtide (ENF) administration by needle/syringe is commonly associated with injection site reactions (ISRs). This study assessed ISRs and participant preference between a needle-free injection device (NFID) and a 27-gauge 1/2-inch needle/syringe (NS). A total of 349 participants with human immunodeficiency virus infection, who had difficulty tolerating long-term administration of ENF by NS, underwent randomization (2:1) to ENF administered twice daily by NFID for 8 weeks, or by NS for 4 weeks followed by NFID for 4 weeks. The objectives of the study were to compare ISRs associated with ENF injection using NFID or NS based on a composite endpoint, ISR incidence/severity, overall ISR scores, and discontinuations. In the NFID group, ISRs improved as the percentage of participants meeting the composite endpoint decreased from baseline (40.1%) to week 4 (25.4%) and remained stable at week 8 (21.2%). In the NS → NFID group, the percentage meeting the composite endpoint worsened from baseline (36.5%) to week 4 (45.1%), but improved at week 8 (26.1%) after switching. Between-participant comparison showed a statistically significant greater improvement from baseline to week 4 in overall ISR score in the NFID group compared to the NS group. Within-participant comparison of the NS → NFID group showed a significantly greater decrease in overall ISR score from baseline to week 8. In responses to a questionnaire, 87.2% of the participants surveyed preferred the NFID delivery system over NS. NFID is an alternative injection method that may reduce the incidence and severity of treatment-limiting ISRs associated with ENF administration. © 2008 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.