Macrophages demonstrate a high level of plasticity, with the ability to undergo dynamic transition between M1 and M2 polarized phenotypes. The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating macrophage polarization has been largely undefined. In this study, we found that miRNA let-7c is expressed at a higher level in M-BMM (M2 macrophages) than in GM-BMM (M1 macrophages). let-7c levels are also greater in alveolar macrophages from fibrotic lungs as compared with those from normal lungs. let-7c expression was decreased when M-BMM converted to GM-BMM, whereas it increased when GM-BMM converted to M-BMM. LPS stimulation reduced let-7c expression in M-BMM. We found that overexpression of let-7c in GM-BMM diminished M1 phenotype expression while promoting polarization to the M2 phenotype. In contrast, knockdown of let-7c in M-BMM promoted M1 polarization and diminished M2 phenotype expression. We found that let-7c targets C/EBP-d, a transcriptional factor that plays an important role in inflammatory response. Furthermore, we found that let-7c regulates bactericidal and phagocytic activities of macrophages, two functional phenotypes implicated in macrophage polarization. Our data suggest that the miRNA let-7c plays an important role in regulating macrophage polarization. Copyright © 2013 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.