© 2018, The Microbiological Society of Korea and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature. The intestinal microbiota is comprised of millions of microorganisms that reside in the gastrointestinal tract and consistently interact with the host. Host factors such as diet and disease status affect the composition of the microbiota, while the microbiota itself produces metabolites that can further manipulate host physiology. Dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota has been characterized in patients with certain metabolic diseases, some of which involve damage to the host intestinal epithelial barrier and alterations in the immune system. In this review, we will discuss the consequences of dietdependent bacterial dysbiosis in the gastrointestinal tract, and how the associated interaction with epithelial and immune cells impacts metabolic diseases.