IMPORTANCE Higher circulating fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations are associated with cardiovascular disease events linked to heart failure, but associations of FGF23 with coronary heart disease (CHD) have been less consistent. OBJECTIVE To determine the association of plasma FGF23 concentrations with incident CHD and whether this association differs by race, sex, or chronic kidney disease status. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We examined the association of FGF23 concentrations with incident CHD risk within the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study, a prospective cohort of black and white adults 45 years and older enrolled between January 2003 and October 2007 with follow-up through December 31, 2011. Using a case-cohort design, we measured FGF23 concentrations in 829 participants who developed incident CHD and in 812 participants randomly selected from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study cohort (cohort random sample). To account for the stratified sampling design, the cohort random sample was weighted back to the original cohort overall (n = 22 127). Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association of FGF23 concentration with incident CHD, adjusting for CHD risk factors and kidney function. In prespecified analyses, we examined whether race, sex, or chronic kidney disease modified the association of FGF23 concentration with incident CHD. EXPOSURES Plasma C-terminal FGF23 concentrations. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Investigator-adjudicated incident CHD events. RESULTS Of the 22 127 participants in the weighted cohort random sample, 13 059 (58.9%) were female and 9435 (42.6%) were black, and the mean age was 64.3 (95% CI, 63.7-64.9) years. Greater age, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, higher urine albumin to creatinine ratio, and female sex were associated with higher FGF23 concentration at baseline. In multivariable models adjusted for established CHD risk factors and kidney function, higher FGF23 concentrations were associated with greater risk of CHD (hazard ratio [HR] comparing fourth with first quartile, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.35-3.42). The magnitude and strength of these associations differed by sex. However, these differences were no longer observed when adjusting for hormone therapy in women (men: HR comparing fourth with first quartile, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.30-4.42; women: HR comparing fourth with first quartile, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.04-5.27) or when using sex-specific FGF23 quartiles (men: HR comparing fourth with first quartile, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.43-4.90; women: HR comparing fourth with first quartile, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.02-5.03). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Higher FGF23 concentrations were associated with greater risk of CHD. Heterogeneity in the association by sex may be caused by differences in the distribution of plasma FGF23 concentrations or the use of hormone therapy in men vs women.