PURPOSE: IOP is the most common independent risk factor for development and progression of glaucoma, but very little is known about IOP dynamics. Continuous IOP telemetry was used in three nonhuman primates to characterize IOP dynamics at multiple time scales for multiple 24-hour periods. METHODS: An existing implantable telemetric pressure transducer system was adapted to monitoring anterior chamber IOP. The system records 500 IOP, ECG, and body temperature measurements per second and compensates for barometric pressure in real time. The continuous IOP signal was digitally filtered for noise and dropout and reported using time-window averaging for 19, 18, and 4 24-hour periods in three animals, respectively. Those data were analyzed for a nycthemeral pattern within each animal. RESULTS: Ten-minute time-window averaging for multiple 24-hour periods showed that IOP fluctuated from 7 to 14 mm Hg during the day, and those changes occurred frequently and quickly. Two-hour time-window averages of IOP for multiple 24-hour periods in three animals showed a weak nycthemeral trend, but IOP was not repeatable from day-to-day within animals. CONCLUSIONS: The measured IOP was successfully measured continuously by using a new, fully implantable IOP telemetry system. IOP fluctuates as much as 10 mm Hg from day to day and hour to hour in unrestrained nonhuman primates, which indicates that snapshot IOP measurements may be inadequate to capture the true dynamic character of IOP. The distributions, magnitudes, and patterns of IOP are not reproducible from day to day within animals, but IOP tends to be slightly higher at night when IOP data are averaged across multiple 24-hour periods within animals.