Osteoporosis is a common skeletal disease that weakens bones and increases the risk of fractures. It affects about one half of women over the age of 60, and one third of older men. With appropriate care, osteoporosis can be prevented; and when present, it can be easily diagnosed and managed. Unfortunately, many patients with osteoporosis are not recognized or treated, even after sustaining a low-trauma fracture. Even when treatment is initiated, patients may not take medication correctly, regularly, or for a sufficient amount of time to receive the benefit of fracture risk reduction. Efforts to improve compliance and treatment outcomes include longer dosing intervals and parenteral administration. Clinical practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis have been developed by the National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) but may not be fully utilized by clinicians who must deal with numerous healthcare priorities. We present an algorithm to help streamline the work of busy clinicians so they can efficiently provide state-of-the-art care to patients with osteoporosis. Copyright © 2010 by The Southern Medical Association.